紀元前、医学の祖ヒポクラテスはトランスジェンダーをすでに病気としてとらえていた。

8月19日、NHKで「芦田愛菜山里亮太の“世紀の財宝”大発見!」というのをやっていた。そこで「ロシア発!黄金と共に眠る謎の“女装”ガイコツ」というのを見たのでさらに調べた。

 

実に興味深いことが分かった。

紀元前、ユーラシアに騎馬民族のスキタイがいた。

彼らのシャーマンは女装をしていた。

「エナレス」と呼ばれる。

このエナレスの遺骨(男性骨+装飾品)が「女装ガイコツ」のこと。

 

歴史家のヘロドトス(紀元前400年頃)にエナレスについての記載がある。

 

また医学の祖であるヒポクラテス(紀元前400年頃)は『空気、水、場所について』の中で、スキタイについて医学的考察をしている。

スキタイは乗馬するため、インポテンツになる。そのため性欲が低下し、女性化するのだという。

 

これは世界最古のトランスジェンダーを病理化した記載だと思う。

 

現在でも、長時間自転車に乗ると、睾丸を圧迫し、勃起障害の原因になるといわれている。2400年前の考察としては、生物学的要因にそれなりに迫っている。

 

また、紀元前というキリスト教以前の時代の考察であることも興味深い。

すなわち、キリスト教以前から、女装が社会的に存在した文化(騎馬民族)と、病気とみなす文化(ギリシャ)があったということだ。

 

騎馬民族ギリシャ民族でなぜそのような違いが生じたのかはよくわからないが。

 

キリスト教については因果関係が逆なのかもしれない。

つまり、キリスト教が女装を異常とみなしたから、西洋では異常とみなされるようになったのではなく、もともと異常とみなしていたから、キリスト教もそのまま異常とみなした、ということなのでは。

 

 

いずれにせよ、19世紀の近代医学のはるか前、ヒポクラテストランスジェンダーを病理モデルでとらえていたことは歴史的に興味深く、押さえておきたい。

英語でも少し検索したが、トランスジェンダーと絡めて論じたものはないようだ。

 

以下、関係記載貼り付け。

 

エナレス

これは種族名ではなく、いわゆる「おんな病」にかかった者たちを言う。スキタイがアジアに侵入した際、スキタイはエジプトを目指して南下すると、エジプト王の泣き落とし戦術に遭い、エジプト侵入をあきらめて引き返した。その途上、シリアのアスカロンという町にさしかかったとき、大部分のスキタイがその町を通過したのに、一部の者が残って「アプロディテ・ウラニア」の神殿を荒らした。のちにこの者たちとその子孫は「おんな病」にかかったため、神殿を荒らした祟りとされている。ヘロドトスもこの者たちの意訳として「おんな男、おとこ女」と記している。「おんな病」については詳しくわからないが、性病、男色、陰萎など諸説あり、確定していない。

占い師

スキュティアには多数の占い師がおり、多数の柳の枝を使って占いをする。まず、占い師は棒をまとめた大きい束をもってくると、地上に置いて束を解き、一本一本並べながら呪文を唱える。そして呪文を唱え続けながら再び棒を束ね、一本ずつ並べてゆく。この卜占術はスキタイ伝統のものであるが、エナレスにおいては菩提樹の樹皮を3つに切り、それを指に巻きつけたりほどいたりして占う。

https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%82%B9%E3%82%AD%E3%82%BF%E3%82%A4#cite_note-35

 

But the Scythians who pillaged the temple, and all their descendants after them, were afflicted by the goddess with the “female” sickness: and so the Scythians say that they are afflicted as a consequence of this and also that those who visit Scythian territory see among them the condition of those whom the Scythians call “Hermaphrodites”.1

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0126%3Abook%3D1%3Achapter%3D105%3Asection%3D4

There are many diviners among the Scythians, who divine by means of many wi!low wands as I will show. They bring great bundles of wands, which they lay on the ground and unfasten, and utter their divinations as they lay the rods down one by one; and while still speaking, they gather up the rods once more and place them together again; [2] this manner of divination is hereditary among them. The Enarees, who are hermaphrodites, say that Aphrodite gave them the art of divination, which they practise by means of lime-tree bark. They cut this bark into three portions, and prophesy while they braid and unbraid these in their fingers.

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Hdt.%204.67&lang=original

 

And, in addition to these, there are many eunuchs among the Scythians, who perform female work, and speak like women. Such persons are called effeminates. The inhabitants of the country attribute the cause of their impotence to a god, and venerate and worship such persons, every one dreading that the like might befall himself; but to me it appears that such affections are just as much divine as all others are, and that no one disease is either more divine or more human than another, but that all are alike divine, for that each has its own nature, and that no one arises without a natural cause. But I will explain how I think that the affection takes its rise. From continued exercise on horseback they are seized with chronic defluxions in their joints owing to their legs always hanging down below their horses; they afterwards become lame and stiff at the hip-joint, such of them, at least, as are severely attacked with it. They treat themselves in this way: when the disease is commencing, they open the vein behind either ear, and when the blood flows, sleep, from feebleness, seizes them, and afterwards they awaken, some in good health and others not. To me it appears that the semen is altered by this treatment, for there are veins behind the ears which, if cut, induce impotence; now, these veins would appear to me to be cut. Such persons afterwards, when they go in to women and cannot have connection with them, at first do not think much about it, but remain quiet; but when, after making the attempt two, three, or more times, they succeed no better, fancying they have committed some offence against the god whom they blame for the affection, they put on female attire, reproach themselves for effeminacy, play the part of women, and perform the same work as women do. This the rich among the Scythians endure, not the basest, but the most noble and powerful, owing to their riding on horseback; for the poor are less affected, as they do not ride on horses. And yet, if this disease had been more divine than the others, it ought not to have befallen the most noble and the richest of the Scythians alone, but all alike, or rather those who have little, as not being able to pay honors to the gods, if, indeed, they delight in being thus rewarded by men, and grant favors in return; for it is likely that the rich sacrifice more to the gods, and dedicate more votive offerings, inasmuch as they have wealth, and worship the gods; whereas the poor, from want, do less in this way, and, moreover, upbraid the gods for not giving them wealth, so that those who have few possessions were more likely to bear the punishments of these offences than the rich. But, as I formerly said, these affections are divine just as much as others, for each springs from a natural cause, and this disease arises among the Scythians from such a cause as I have stated. But it attacks other men in like manner, for whenever men ride much and very frequently on horseback, then many are affected with rheums in the joints, sciatica, and gout, and they are inept at venery. But these complaints befall the Scythians, and they are the most impotent of men for the aforesaid causes, and because they always wear breeches, and spend the most of their time on horseback, so as not to touch their privy parts with the hands, and from the cold and fatigue they forget the sexual desire, and do not make the attempt until after they have lost their virility. Thus it is with the race of the Scythians.

https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/On_Airs,_Waters,_Places#Part_XXII